Heat generator principle

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Reactor / heat source principle:

Given hydrogen atoms adsorbed in a metallic powder (possibly ferro-magnetic) and therefore with very low mobility.

From a "classical physics" point of view (i. e. not quantum):

When an MML (i.e. a "magnetically excited" neutrino or anti-neutrino, thus forming a magnetic monopole) passes between a hydrogen nucleus (i.e.: a proton) and the corresponding electron, the extremely intense magnetic field of the MML deflects the trajectory of the electron around the nucleus in such a way that the electron penetrates into the nucleus.

So the electron is captured by the proton, which becomes a free neutron (remember: the half-life of a free neutron is very short, about 611 seconds).

The neutron produced in this way is very slow given the very low velocity of the initial proton, as the original hydrogen atom was adsorbed in the metal powder and therefore had only a very low velocity, so that this neutron will be easily captured by the closest nucleus of the metal on whose surface the hydrogen is adsorbed.

This capture increases the mass of the nucleus, but that increased mass is less than the sum of the masses of the initial nucleus and the neutron, so the excess energy is made available in the form of photons, i. e. heat.

In some cases, the resulting nucleus is unstable, causing the beta disintegration of one of its neutrons into a proton, an electron and an electronic anti-neutrino; the net effect in these cases is a transmutation of the metal into next element of the Mendeleev table, after a random delay proportional to the half-life unstable nucleus produced by this neutron capture.

Said beta disintegration also produces excess energy available in the form of heat.

This results in the formation of heavier and heavier nuclei, one hadron at a time, producing excess energy in the form of heat.

Hence we have in the reactor:

The MML source:

The MML source is an alumina tube filled with hydrogen at normal pressure, in which short high current electrical discharges are created between two tungsten electrodes separated by 10 to 30 mm (that distance is to be tested and adjusted - initially it will be 10 mm as this is usually a nice distance to generate sparks).

This is a flash tube that can be built as a trigatron (see this word in Wikipedia) or as a photo flash (like a xenon flash or like an air-gap flash - see this word in the English Wikipedia); in any case this requires a third electrode to create a high voltage ignition pulse for each discharge.

The discharge duration should be quite short (less than 100 μsec) and its intensity should be quite high (at least 100 amps, preferably higher).

Two examples of air-gap flashes found on the net:

  1. a 300 μF capacitor charged at 300 volts, discharded in 10 μsec producing a current of about
    i = c.v/t = ((300 * 10^-6) * 300) / 10^-5 = 9000 amps
  2. a 0,05 μF capacitor charged at 20,000 volts, discharged in 1 μsec producing a current of about
    i = c.v/t = ((5 * 10^-8) * (2 * 10^4)) / 10^-6 = 1000 amps

For us: a 470 μF capacitor charged at 350 volts with an ESR (equivalent series resistor) of 0.13 Ohms, giving a discharge time t = c.v/i where v/i = 0.15 is the ESR resistance (0.13) plus the circuit resistance (0.02), so
t = (470 * 10^-6) * 0.15 = 70.5 μsec (that's a bit longish) and the discharge current will be about
i = c.v/t = (470 * 10^-6) * 350 / (70.5 * 10^-6) = 2333 amps (quite nice!).

It should be clear that wires from the capacitor to the tungsten electrodes must have a very low resistance (≤ 0.02 ohms) and therefore be quite large...

The source of hydrogen:

The hydrogen gas source could be any of these:

The following image shows schematically the experimental reactor structure.

Note: the reactor is enclosed in a steel tube to confine the gaz coming from the hydrogen source.